WHAT IS RADAR AND THE FUNCTION OF THE SHIP’S RADAR

tHE SHIP'S RADAR

Radio Detection and Ranging or Radar are one of the Electronic Navigation equipment that plays an important role in shipping. Basically, radar functions to detect and measure the distance of an object around the ship. Besides being able to provide clues to the presence of ships, buoys, shore positions, and other objects around the ship, this tool can also provide bearing and distance between the ship and these objects.

From the understanding of radar above, radar is very useful to know the position of other ships so that it can help avoid/prevent collisions at sea. Radar will be very useful during bad weather, foggy conditions, and sailing at night, especially when navigational instructions such as beacons, buoys, hills or buildings cannot be visually observed.

The main advantage of the radar compared to other navigation equipment is in its operation, the radar does not require transmitter stations.

Basically, how radar works using the principle of electronic wave emission. Where using a special transmitter that will emit short radio waves in a narrow path (narrow beam) by a directional antenna.

The movement of the waves generated by the radio is assumed to move in a straight line at a constant speed and if the pulse of the wave sent hits a target such as a ship, the coast of an island, or other object, the radio wave will be reflected again and received back by the receiver unit on the transmitting ship. Immediately.

RADAR

The reflected echo is called a radio echo. By measuring the time difference between transmitting and receiving echoes and knowing the speed of radio wave propagation, the distance between the ship and the target can be known. This distance information will be shown on the radar screen by a cathode ray tube (CRT).

The radio wave pulses emitted will experience twice the distance, namely the distance from the observership (own ship) to the target when transmitting and the distance to return to the receiver from the target.

To determine the distance and position of the target, only half the travel time is taken into account. The radio waves emitted by a radar transmitter (Radar transmitter) move quickly so that the measurement uses microseconds (m/?s).

The propagation of radio waves travels at a speed of 300 m/?s. To calculate the distance from the ship to the target is very easy for example; the interval between sending and receiving radio waves is 100 s, the distance to and from the radio waves is 100 x 300 = 30,000 m and the distance between the two ships is half that is 15,000 m = 8.1 nautical miles.

The minimum range of the radar is the same as the distance that can be seen by the human eye and the maximum distance depends on the type and capability of the radar. However, the target behind the angle will not appear on the radar.

MARINE RADAR

Information on targets such as islands and ships on the radar screen is shown in the form of a Plan Position Indicator (PPI). With this method target information such as islands, other ships, etc. Around the observership can be shown on the radar screen. Time measurement on the radar begins with the start of a trigger signal which is sent to the transmitter (magnetron) and cathode ray tube (CRT).

The magnetron consists of a high-strength magnet that can produce vibrations and very high frequencies that are very much needed by radar. High frequency will only be obtained if the modulator sends voltage to the magnetron repeatedly with an interval of 0.05 – 1 ?s (microseconds).

At the time of transmitting, radio waves will be transmitted through an antenna (scanner) through a waveguide which is controlled by an electronic transmit/receive switch (T/R electronic switch). Likewise, at the time of reception, radio echoes will be received by the receiver via the T/R electronic switch.

The Ship’s Radar Functions Are As Follows:

  1. To determine the position of the ship from time to time. Determining the position of the ship with radar can be done in several ways, namely using a bearing with a bearing, using a bearing with a distance, and using a distance with a distance.
  2. Guiding ships in and out of harbors or narrow waters. In the Head-Up position, the radar is very effective and efficient to assist the captains or pilots in navigating their ships in and out of ports, rivers, or narrow shipping lanes.
  3. Help find the presence or absence of a collision hazard. By looking at the Cathoda Ray Tube (CRT) screen there is a reflection or echo from thick clouds.
  4. Help predict the rain through the ship’s trajectory. By looking at the radar screen (Cathoda Ray Tube) there are reflections or echoes from thick clouds.

Ship Radar Parts

According to Arso Martopo, Capt, (1992: 65) then the parts of the radar or transmitter and receiver of a ship’s radio set are built-in units which can be distinguished as follows:

  1. Main Consule Is a box that contains units – units consisting of a transmitter, receiver, and button transmitter-receiver.
  2. Aerial Unit Is a unit consisting of a waveguide, a reflector with a motor to rotate it, and various schematic elements.
  3. Display Unit on the Radar Is a unitary unit consisting of a Cathoda Ray Tube (CRT) and various control buttons, usually placed on the bridge.

This is about what is meant by radar and the function of the ship’s radar, which is electronic navigation equipment on board

10 MARITIME MUSEUMS IN EUROPE

MARITIME MUSEUMS IN EUROPE

Many of the major European countries, for example, Spain and England, have a history of being shipyard centers and shipping bases. Other countries, such as Iceland and Norway, have a much older story: Viking-era fishing and fishing traditions. This history is recorded in the maritime museum. Here are 10 examples:

Estonian Maritime Museum

Estonian Maritime Museum, Tallinn

The museum was founded in 1935 by a legion of captains and sailors. After several relocations, the museum is finally anchored in the Old Town area of ​​Tallinn, in the half-millennial Fat Margaret tower to be exact. In 2012, the Estonian Maritime Museum expanded its wings by opening Seaplane Harbour, a magnificent hangar containing the submarine Lembit, the amphibious ship Short, and the wreck of the Maasilinn.

National Maritime Museum, Amsterdam

National Maritime Museum, Amsterdam

The building was constructed in 1656. It is located on an artificial island containing a pile of 1,800 logs. In this cultural heritage building are displayed objects that tell the history of the Netherlands as a world maritime power in the past. Parked beside the building is a replica of the “Amsterdam,” a VOC sailing ship that once docked in Batavia, then was destroyed by a storm in 1749.

Reykjavik Maritime Museum

Reykjavik Maritime Museum

Iceland, an island 1,000 kilometers from mainland Europe, has long developed sea-conquering skills. This history is recorded by the Reykjavik Maritime Museum. The collection includes fisheries artifacts, photographs and documents, and old ships, including the patrol boat Odinn. The museum is located in the old port, occupying a former building for a fish shelter installation.

Maritime Museum of Denmark

Maritime Museum of Denmark, Helsingor

Design becomes its strongest magnet. Reflecting its function of recording maritime history, the museum is designed in the form of a ship’s hull planted in the ground, in an area that used to house many shipyards. The building complex, designed by the firm Bjarke Ingels Group, was inaugurated in 2013 as the new location for the Maritime Museum of Denmark. Previously, this museum was located in Kronborg Castle.

Merseyside Maritime Museum

Merseyside Maritime Museum, Liverpool

As a result of changing too drastically, the Liverpool maritime area lost its title as a World Heritage Site. Luckily, the main magnet still survives the Merseyside Maritime Museum. The complex occupies a former warehouse brick building at the Royal Albert Dock. The collections tell a story about Liverpool’s past as a major port city in the world.

Norwegian Maritime Museum

Norwegian Maritime Museum, Oslo

When it was founded in 1914, its name was Norsk Sjofartsmuseum. Nearly a century later, the name was revised to the Norwegian Maritime Museum (NMM). The collection includes the old ship Stokkebaten, 40 nautical-themed paintings, and artifacts. Not only watching the exhibition, but visitors can also take a tour aboard the 1916 Vaaghals and Svanen. If you want to learn about the history of the Vikings, visit the Viking Ship Museum, which is a 15-minute walk from the NMM.

German Maritime Museum, Bremerhaven

German Maritime Museum, Bremerhaven

Germany, the center of gigantic shipbuilding, summarizes its maritime history in a museum in Bremerhaven, about 100 kilometers from Hamburg. This place has the status of a “research museum” managed by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Scientific Community. The showroom contains, among others, the nuclear power ark Otto Hahn, the cargo ship Seute Deere, the submarine Wilhelm Bauer, and the wreck of the 1380-built Hansekogge.

National Maritime Museum, Stockholm

National Maritime Museum, Stockholm

The museum houses about 900,000 photos and 50,000 objects. Everything is accommodated in a grand building designed by the architect Ragnar Ostberg. Thanks to its majestic interior and spacious grounds, the museum, which opened in 1938, is also frequently used as a concert venue. Some of the big stars who have performed here are Oasis, Lisa Nilsson, and Pearl Jam.

Maritime Museum of Finland, Kotka

Maritime Museum of Finland, Kotka

Through 138,000 objects, this museum tells the story of Finland since the Middle Ages, especially about the relationship of its citizens with the Baltic Sea. The Maritime Museum of Finland is located in the south of Finland, precisely on the edge of the bay jutting towards Russia. The unique building was designed by Lahdelma & Mahlamaki Architects.

Maritime Museum of Barcelona

Maritime Museum of Barcelona

In the past, Spain was one of the main points of departure for colossal voyages invading Asia and America. In fact, a number of foreign sailors, for example, Columbus and Magellan, chose Spain as the base of their expedition. The history of this empire can be studied at the Maritime Museum of Barcelona. In a Gothic building, the museum displays a variety of archives and artifacts, including nautical instruments and old ships.

10 BIGGEST CRUISE SHIP IN THE WORLD

10 BIGGEST CRUISE SHIP

Prinzessin Victoria Luise, the first cruise ship with a speed of 1900, has a volume of 4,409 GT (gross tonnage) and a capacity of 180 passengers. Only 12 years later, the Titanic was born with a capacity of 2,400 passengers.

Supported by advances in shipyard technology, the size and capacity of ships continues to increase significantly. Entering the 21st century, its development is even more extreme. Where capable of carrying more than 6,000 passengers, even now cruise ships are equipped with various magnificent facilities such as recreational parks and theater halls.

And this big competition is not over yet. This year, the Symphony of the Seas still holds the title of largest cruise ship. Early next year, he will be replaced by Wonder of the Seas.

Symphony of the Seas

Symphony of the Seas

  • Volume: 228,081 GT
  • Length: 362 meters
  • Capacity: 6,680 passengers
  • Operator: Royal Caribbean
  • Examples of destinations: Haiti, Puerto Rico, St. Maarten, Bahamas

Harmony of the Seas

Harmony of the Seas

  • Volume: 226,963 GT
  • Length: 362 meters
  • Capacity: 6,687 passengers
  • Operator: Royal Caribbean
  • Example destinations: Rome, Capri, Barcelona, ​​Marseille

Oasis of the Seas

Oasis of the Seas

  • Volume: 226,838 GT
  • Length: 361 meters
  • Capacity: 6,699 passengers
  • Operator: Royal Caribbean
  • Examples of destinations: New York, Nova Scotia, Cozumel, Miami

Allure of The Seas

Allure of The Seas

  • Volume: 225,282 GT
  • Length: 361 meters
  • Capacity: 6,780 passengers
  • Operator: Royal Caribbean
  • Example destinations: Texas, Cozumel, Honduras, Puerto Plata

Costa Smeralda

Costa Smeralda

  • Volume: 185,010 GT
  • Length: 337 meters
  • Capacity:6,554 passengers
  • Operator: Costa Cruises
  • Example destinations: Rome, Marseille, Valencia, Barcelona

Iona

Iona

  • Volume: 184,700 GT
  • Length: 344 meters
  • Capacity: 6,600 passengers
  • Operator: P&O Cruises
  • Example destinations: Hamburg, Rotterdam, Zeebrugge, Southampton

AIDAnova

AIDAnova

  • Volume: 183,858 GT
  • Length: 337 meters
  • Capacity: 6,654 passengers
  • Operator: AIDA
  • Examples of destinations: Mallorca, Malaga, Helsinki, St. Petersburg

MSC Grandiosa

MSC Grandiosa

  • Volume: 181,541 GT
  • Length: 331 meters
  • Capacity: 6,334 passengers
  • Operator: MSC Cruises
  • Example destinations: Genoa, Valletta, Rome, Barcelona

MSC Virtuosa

MSC Virtuosa

  • Volume: 181,541 GT
  • Length: 331 meters
  • Capacity: 6,334 passengers
  • Operator: MSC Cruises
  • Example destinations: Marseille, Malaga, Lisbon, Marrakech

Mardi Gras

Mardi Gras

  • Volume: 180,000 GT
  • Length: 344 meters
  • Capacity: 6,630 passengers
  • Operator: Carnival Cruise Line
  • Example destinations: St. Thomas, San Juan, Orlando, Amber Cove

15 ATTRACTIVE MARITIME MUSEUMS IN 15 COUNTRIES

Canada, the country with the longest coastline, has eight maritime museums. Sweden, which has the most islands, has three maritime museums. The maritime museum explores the relationship between humans, civilization, and the surrounding sea. The objects are varied, ranging from traditional arks, shipyard equipment, to modern warships. Here is a list of maritime museums that you can visit:

Maritime Museum of Ushuaia

Maritime Museum of Ushuaia

Initially feared, the Presidio de Ushuaia turned into an attraction. In 1985, this old prison was converted into a maritime museum. Here are recorded stories about the great expedition in South America, the drama of the gold hunt, to the harsh life of the Patagonia region. museomaritimo.com

New Zealand Maritime Museum, Auckland

This museum summarizes New Zealand’s maritime history, from the arrival of Polynesian sailors of the birth of modern naval technology. The collections include Maori boats, whale hunting equipment, nautical-themed crafts, and lighthouse documentation. The New Zealand Maritime Museum opened in 1993, when America’s Cup was held in Auckland. maritimemuseum.co.nz

Hong Kong Maritime Museum

The location is on the pier, between the Ferris wheel and the Four Seasons Hong Kong hotel. In 15 galleries, the museum houses nearly 1,000 objects that tell of civilizations around the South China Sea, including stories of pirates and Hong Kong’s journey as a city. hkmaritimemuseum.org

National Maritime Museum, Amsterdam

In a building with an titim of 1656, this museum exposed the history of the Netherlands as a mighty maritime empire in the past. Parked beside the museum is a replica of “Amsterdam,” a VOC sailing ship that once docked in Batavia, then was destroyed by a storm in 1749. hetscheepvaartmuseum.com

Odisha State Maritime Museum, Cuttack

Last year, news broke that India would set up its first maritime museum. In fact, this kind of museum has been around since 2013 in Cuttack, 400 kilometers from Kolkata. The Odisha State Maritime Museum occupies a former British colonial boat repair shop. One unique fact: this maritime museum is not by the sea, but by a river. odishastatemaritimemuseum.org

The North Carolina Maritime Museum

The United States has more than 200 maritime-themed museums. Specifically, in North Caroline, this type of museum is spread over three locations: Beaufort, Southport, and Hatteras. The collection is sourced from around 100 countries. There are shipwrecks, various boats, fishing equipment, to shipyard equipment. ncmaritimemuseums.com

National Maritime Museum of China, Tianjin

In a futuristic building, the museum chronicles the past: the great voyages and benevolent missions of the Chinese empire. The museum opened in 2019. Its design resulted from a competition won by the firm COX Architecture. Meanwhile, its location is in Tianjin, a port city that likes to hoist superlative structures.

Vancouver Maritime Museum

Various ships—from artifacts to replicas—are displayed in this museum. The main star, of course, RCMP VesselSt. Roch, an exploration ark that was once boarded by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Moving to the courtyard of the museum, there is a research submarine Ben Franklin. vanmaritime.com

National Maritime Museum, Stockholm

The museum houses about 900,000 photos and 50,000 objects. Everything is accommodated in a grand building designed by the architect Ragnar Ostberg. Uniquely, thanks to its magnificent interior and spacious grounds, this museum is often used as a concert venue. Oasis, Lisa Nilsson, and Pearl Jam have performed here. sjohistoriska.se

Western Australia Maritime Museum

 

 

Western Australia Maritime Museum, Fremantle

Fremantle, about 20 kilometers from Perth, was the starting point for the British colony in western Australia. Here also stands a maritime museum that chronicles important voyages to and from Australia. One of his proud collections is the sailing ship Australia II, which won the 1983 America’s Cup. visit.museum.wa.gov.au

German Maritime Museum,

German Maritime Museum, Bremerhaven

Germany is famous as a shipyard center. Many gigantic arks, especially cruise ships, were produced here. Naturally, this country has maritime museums, one of which is the German Maritime Museum in Bremerhaven. The showroom contains the nuclear power ship Otto Hahn, the submarine Wilhelm Bauer, and the wreck of the 1380-built Hansekogge. dsm.museum

Yamato Museum

Yamato Museum, Hiroshima

During World War II, the Japanese Navy was among the most respected in the world—and Kure was instrumental in the birth of that prestige. In this city, there is a shipyard that produces warships. One of his masterpieces is the battleship Yamato. The miniatures, along with hundreds of other maritime-themed objects, are housed in the Yamato Museum. yamato-museum.com

Maritime Museum of Denmark

Maritime Museum of Denmark, Helsingor

The design is unique: the hull of the ship is planted in the ground, in an area that used to be a shipyard center. This building complex designed by the firm Bjarke Ingels Group was inaugurated in 2013 as the new “home” of the Maritime Museum of Denmark. Previously, this museum was located in Kronborg Castle. mfs.dk

Korea National Maritime Museum

Korea National Maritime Museum, Busan

As well as being known as the “city of movies,” Busan is the busiest sea gateway in Korea. Not surprisingly, this coastal city has the grandest maritime museum in Korea. The Korea National Maritime Museum was inaugurated in 2012. In an ark-like structure to transport planes, the museum collects about 12,000 objects, including a replica of the legendary ship Joseon Tongsins. knmm.or.kr

Estonian Maritime Museum

Estonian Maritime Museum, Tallinn

The collection is distributed in two locations. First, at the 500-year-old Fat Margaret tower in the Old Town area. Second, in the magnificent hangar of Seaplane Harbor, which resides in the harbor area. This second location houses gigantic nautical modes, including the Lembit submarine and the Maasilinn wreck. memuuseum.ee